Vazquez C, Tan CY, and Horner SM. Hepatitis C virus infection can be inhibited by a non-canonical antiviral signaling pathway targeted by NS3-NS4A. J. Virol. 2019. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00725-19. PMID: 31534039.

Beachboard DC, Park M, Vijayan M, Snider DL, Fernando DJ, Williams GD, Stanley S, McFadden MJ, Horner SM. The small GTPase RAB1B promotes antiviral innate immunity by interacting with TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). J Biol Chem. 2019;294(39):14231-40. PMCID: PMC6768648.

Williams GD, Gokhale NS, Horner SM. Regulation of Viral Infection by the RNA Modification N6-Methyladenosine. Annu Rev Virol. 2019;6(1):235-53. PMID: 31283446.

Roder AE, Vazquez C, Horner SM. The acidic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS4A protein is required for viral assembly and envelopment through interactions with the viral E1 glycoprotein. PLoS Pathog. 2019;15(2):e1007163. PMID: 30730994.

Roder AE, Horner SM. Measuring Hepatitis C Virus Envelopment by Using a Proteinase K Protection Assay. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1911:209-17. PMID: 30593628.


Gokhale NS*, McIntyre ABR*, Mattocks MD, Lazear HM, Holley CL, Mason CE, and Horner SM. Altered m6A modification of cellular transcripts influences Flaviviridae infection. BioRxiv 670984. June 13, 2019. doi:

McIntyre ABR, Gokhale NS, Cerchietti L, Jaffrey SR, Horner SM, Mason CE. Limits in the detection of m6A changes using MeRIP/m6A-seq. BioRxiv 657130. June 03, 2019. doi:

Vazquez C, Tan CY, and Horner SM. Hepatitis C virus infection can be inhibited by a non-canonical antiviral signaling pathway targeted by NS3-NS4A. BioRxiv 625640. May 02, 2019. doi: Accepted at JVI; see above.

Beachboard DC, Park M, Vijayan M, Fernando DJ, Williams GD, Horner SM. RAB1B interacts with TRAF3 to promote antiviral innate immunity. BioRxiv 542050. February 05, 2019. doi: Accepted at JBC; see above.


Dethoff EA*, Boerneke MA*, Gokhale NS, Muhire BM, Martin DP, Sacco MT, McFadden MJ, Weinstein JA, Messer WB**, Horner SM**, Weeks KM**. Pervasive tertiary structure in the dengue virus RNA genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(45):11513-8. PMID: 30341219. *Equal contribution **Co-corresponding

Imam H, Khan M, Gokhale NS, McIntyre ABR, Kim GW, Jang JY, Kim SJ, Mason CE, Horner SM, Siddiqui A. N6-methyladenosine modification of hepatitis B virus RNA differentially regulates the viral life cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1808319115. PMID: 30104368.

Wang L, Pittman KJ, Barker JR, Salinas RE, Stanaway IB, Williams GD, Carroll RJ, Balmat T, Ingham A, Gopalakrishnan AM, Gibbs KD, Antonia AL, e MN, Heitman J, Lee SC, Jarvik GP, Denny JC, Horner SM, DeLong MR, Valdivia RH, Crosslin DR, Ko DC. An Atlas of Genetic Variation Linking Pathogen-Induced Cellular Traits to Human Disease. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;24(2):308-23 e6. PMID: 30092202

Liu B, Merriman DK, Choi SH, Schumacher MA, Plangger R, Kreutz C, Horner SM, Meyer KD, Al-Hashimi HM. A potentially abundant junctional RNA motif stabilized by m(6)A and Mg(2). Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):2761. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05243-z. PMID: 30018356

McFadden MJ, Mitchell-Dick A, Vazquez C, Roder AE, Labagnara KF, McMahon JJ, Silver DL, Horner SM. (2018) A Fluorescent Cell-Based System for Imaging Zika Virus Infection in Real-Time. Viruses. 2018;10(2). doi: 10.3390/v10020095. PMID: 29495257


Gokhale NS, Horner SM. 2017. RNA modifications go viral. PLoS Pathog 13:e1006188. PMCID: PMC5344520

Vazquez C, Beachboard DC, Horner SM. 2017. Methods to Visualize MAVS Subcellular Localization. Methods Mol Biol 1656:131-142. PMID: 28808966

Gokhale NS, Horner SM. Knotty Zika virus blocks exonuclease to produce subgenomic flaviviral RNAs. Cell Host Microbe. 2017. 21(1). PMID: 28081439

McFadden MJ, Gokhale NS, Horner SM. Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses. Curr Opin Virology. 2017; 22:36-43. PMID: 27951430.


Gokhale NS, McIntyre ABR, McFadden MJ, Roder AE, Kennedy EM, Gandara JA, HopcraftSE, Quicke KM, Vazquez  C, Willer J, Ilkayeva OR, Law BA, Holley CL, Garcia-Blanco MA,Evans MJ, Suthar MS, Bradrick SS, Mason CE*, Horner SM*. N6-methyladenosine in Flaviviridae viral RNA genomes regulates infectionCell Host Microbe. 2016. 20(5):654-665. PMID: 27773535. *Co-corresponding. Featured on the Cover.

Beachboard DC, Horner SM. Innate immune evasion strategies of DNA and RNA viruses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2016; 32:113-119. PMCID: 4983539

Kennedy EM, Bogerd HP, Kornepati AVR, Kang B, Ghoshal D, Marshall JB, Poling BC, Tsai G, Gokhale N, Horner SM, Cullen BR. Post-transcriptional m6A editing of HIV-1 mRNAs enhances viral gene expression. Cell Host Microbe. 2016; 19(5): 675-85. PMCID: 4867121


Aligeti M*, Roder A*, Horner SM. Cooperation between the Hepatitis C Virus p7 and NS5B Proteins Enhances Virion Infectivity. J Virol. 2015;89(22):11523-33. PMCID: 4645646. *Equal Contribution

Vazquez C, Horner SM. MAVS Coordination of Antiviral Innate Immunity. J Virol. 2015;89(14):6974-7. PMCID: 4473567.

Horner SM*, Naggie S*. Successes and Challenges on the Road to Cure Hepatitis C. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11(6):e1004854. PMCID: 4472668. *Corresponding Author

Horner SM*, Wilkins C, Badil S, Iskarpatyoti J, Gale M, Jr. Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial-Associated ER Membranes (MAM) during RNA Virus Infection Reveals Dynamic Changes in Protein and Organelle Trafficking. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0117963. PMCID: 4348417. *Corresponding Author

Horner SM. Insights into antiviral innate immunity revealed by studying hepatitis C virus. Cytokine. 2015;74(2):190-7. PMCID: 4475425.


Gokhale NS, Vazquez C, Horner SM. Hepatitis C virus: Strategies to evade antiviral responses. Future Virol. 2014;9(12):1061-75. PMCID: 4430848.

Horner SM. Defining the spatial relationship between hepatitis C virus infection and interferon stimulated gene induction in the human liver. Hepatology. 2014 APR: doi: 10.1002/hep.26960. PMID: 24375835.

Horner SM. Activation and evasion of antiviral innate immunity by hepatitis C virus. J Mol Biol. 2014 MAR: 426(6):1198-209. PMID: 24184198.

Stacy PhD and Post-doc papers

Jarret A, McFarland AP*, Horner SM*, Kell A, Schwerk J, Hong M, Badil S, Joslyn RC, Baker DP, Carrington M, Hagedorn CH, Gale M, Jr., Savan R. Hepatitis C virus-induced microRNAs dampen interferon mediated antiviral signaling. Nat Med. 2016. 22: 1475-1481. PMID: 27841874. *Equal contribution

McFarland AP, Horner SM, Jarret A, Joslyn RC, Bindewald E, Shapiro BA, Delker DA, Hagedorn C, Carrington M, Gale M, Jr., Savan R. IFNL3 (IL28B) favorable genotype escapes HCV-induced microRNAs and mRNA decay. Nat Immunol. 2014 Jan;15(1):72-9. PMID: 24241692.

Horner SM, Gale, M, Jr. Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus. Nat Med. 2013; 19(7): 879-88. PMID: 23836238.

Horner SM, Gale M, Jr. Regulation of innate immunity and interferon defenses by hepatitis C virus. In Chronic Hepatitis B and C. Edited by C. Shih. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2012. pp. 245-270.

Liu HM, Loo YM, Horner SM, Zornetzer GA, Katze MG, Gale M, Jr. The Mitochondrial Targeting Chaperone 14-3-3epsilon Regulates a RIG-I Translocon that Mediates Membrane Association and Innate Antiviral Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11(5):528-37. PMID: 22607805.

Patel MR, Loo YM, Horner SM, Gale M, Jr., Malik HS. Convergent evolution of escape from hepaciviral antagonism in primates. PLoS Biol. 2012;10(3):e1001282. PMCID: 3302847.

Horner SM, Park HS, Gale M, Jr. Control of innate immune signaling and membrane targeting by the Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease are governed by the NS3 helix alpha0. J Virol. 2012;86(6):3112-20. PMCID: 22238314.

Horner SM, Liu HM, Park HS, Briley J, Gale M, Jr. Mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAM) form innate immune synapses and are targeted by hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011. PMID: 21844353.

Horner SM, Gale M, Jr. Intracellular innate immune cascades and interferon defenses that control hepatitis C virus. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29(9):489-98.PMID: 19708811.

DiMaio, D, Johung, K, Goodwin, EC, Horner, SM and Yates, KE. Senescence induced by repression of human papillomavirus oncogenes in cervical cancer cells. In Beyond Apoptosis: Cellular Outcomes of Cancer Therapy. Edited by IB Roninson, JM Brown, and DE Bredesen. Informa Healthcare, New York, 2008. pp209-222.

Horner SM, DiMaio D. The DNA binding domain of a papillomavirus E2 protein programs a chimeric nuclease to cleave integrated human papillomavirus DNA in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. J Virol. 2007;81(12):6254-64. PMCID: 17392356.

Horner SM, DeFilippis RA, Manuelidis L, DiMaio D. Repression of the human papillomavirus E6 gene initiates p53-dependent, telomerase-independent senescence and apoptosis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. J Virol. 2004;78(8):4063-73. PMCID: 15047823.

Sherer NM, Lehmann MJ, Jimenez-Soto LF, Ingmundson A, Horner SM, Cicchetti G, et al. Visualization of retroviral replication in living cells reveals budding into multivesicular bodies. Traffic. 2003;4(11):785-801. PMID: 14617360.